Emergencies such as :-
- Natural disasters – floods, earthquakes , hurricanes and volcano eruptions
- Environmental emergencies – Technological and industrial accidents , man made disasters
- Pandemic emergencies – Sudden spread of disease
Disaster management is of four types :
Disaster Preventions – We can’t prevent all the disasters, we can prevent certain disasters. We can prevent Natural disasters, to some extent.
Disaster preparedness – we can reduce the loss of life and damage with this plan, with the timely and effective help.
Disaster relief – The activities such as providing food and water, making arrangements for their lives and health care.
Disaster recovery – Replacing with the buildings, and measures taken to avoid the disasters in future.
Countries which face disasters :
More than, $100 million dollars of economic losses a day were caused by natural disasters in East Asia and Pacific region over the last 10 years, which includes Cambodia, China, Indonesia and Vietnam. DRM team plays the significant role with the activities such as learning programmes, video seminars, frequent monitoring.
When we talk about the Disaster management in India, we can’t forget the UTTARAKHAND disaster happened in June’2013. Heavy rains from 14 June caused rivers in Uttarkashi, Rudraprayag, Chamoli and Tehri districts in Uttarakhand made the state to overflow. The Indian army played a vital role during the relief measures. Hindustan times, on 30th June,2013 announces that Exact count of dead in Uttarakhand may remain unknown, but the state government put the number of missing of 3,000 while the rescue operations were at the final phase.
Even though, we have proper preventive measures for disaster. In India, we have certain negative factors. Still, we don’t have proper preventive measures for some diseases like dengue, etc. For natural disasters, flood and cyclones, yet we have to proper arrangements. Emergency planning should aim where possible to prevent emergencies occurring , and when they do occur, good planning should reduce , control or mitigate the effects of the emergency. India is lacking in it , in some aspects. For some of the disasters, we did rescue efforts , instead of doing prevention.
India is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. It is vulnerable to cyclones, drought , flood , earthquakes , fire and landslides. India has an integrated administrative machinery for disaster management. The Indian federal system , disaster management is running at State level and District level. Forecasting and warning is done properly. A central sector scheme on Natural Disaster Management Programmes (NDMP) is being implemented , in December 1993. The main objective of the programme is to enhance the national capability for disaster reduction, preparedness and mitigation. Japan is the role model for India, in the aspects of Disaster Management .
Most of the disasters tend to occur between the Tropic of cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. This covers most of the Asian countries. So, the 21st century vision focuses on Regional co-operation. The National Center for Disaster Management, New Delhi is working in the area of natural disaster management for human resource development, creation of database, documentation or disaster events, research studies in International level.
With the above measures, we can handle each and every disaster in a proper and effective way.