Cloning technology exists in our world before 1997. Cloning can be done in two ways :-
Artificial Embryo Twinning :- Artificial embryo twinning is the usage of low technology to make clones. This technique do some mimics in the natural process, which creates identical twins. Naturally, twins when the embryo splits into two. It happens in the initial days itself, results with twins identical. Artificial Embryo Twinning do the same approach. But, it do it in a petri dish, instead of doing in the mother’s uterus. A very early embryo is separated into individual cells , and they allow the cells to divide and develop for a short time in petri dish, and they place into a surrogate mother. They all will be identical.
Somatic Nuclear cell transfer :- SCNT , is a different approach. This method is used to create the famous dolly the sheep. A somatic cell is any cell in the body other than sperm and egg, the reproductive cells. The nucleaus is the complete set of DNA. The divided into packages called chromosomes. The researchers isolated somatic cell from an adult female sheep, then they transferred the nucleaus from the somatic cell to the egg cell. After a couple of weeks, it became like a fertilized egg. Then the lamb dolly came, exactly as such the adult sheep, the owner of the somatic cell.
When scientists clone an organism, they are making the exact genetic copy of the whole organism, by the above two ways. Our old experiences of life have told us that, humans have that laziness always and they can alone do what ever they want, they will bring from frogs to sheep, they prepare. Cloning was helpful to prepare whatever they want.
Cloning in medicine :- Cloning has its benefits in using in medicine for a large scale. They clone animals for researches, and to study and test the medicines they are introducing.
Cloning to make stem cells :- Stem cells build, maintain and repair the body , which will keep our life healthy. Stem cells transferred from one person to another, for the immune purpose.
Now, they have started human also. In 2013, Scientists at Oregan Health and Science university were the first to use cloning techniques in producing the human embryo cells, successfully. In 2009. Scientists made it success for several clones. Cloning endangered species is much easier. Animals can donate healthy, living cells. But the big challenge we have is the genetic diversity.
There are negative effects of cloning. It is dangerous to society. The most important point, which is against the cloning is the cloning child, has a medical history of the cloning parent. And there were lot of arguments against cloning that, the cloning technology is not safer to impact on humans. It can be reacting as a age quicker. The cloning children may suffer by the lack of individuality, as because the cloning just encourages the duplicity only.
And a greater disadvantage is that, if the humans started doing cloning, the parents , do the child birth as a lottery method and will do whatever they wish the baby and not with the love and the affection. This will create a worst society.
Anyway cloning is the advanced technology, it has its pros and cons. The people who are utilizing that, should use that with the cause, not to spoil the society and the human beings.