River water disputes in India
If we points the river water disputes, the major dispute, coming into our mind, is the Krishna river water dispute. Let us discuss that in detail. The Krishna river is the biggest river in peninsular India. It originates near Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra from the statue of a cow in a temple. It then runs for a distance of 303 km in Maharashtra. 480 km through the breadth of North Karnataka and the rest of its 1300 km journey in Andhra Pradesh, before it empties into the Bay of Bengal.
The main issue that Karnataka contends that it does not receive much water, as Tamil nadu. The sharing of river water has been a serious conflict between the Indian states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu. The basin area of the river covers the area, Tamilnadu has 54%, Karnataka has 42%, Kerala has 3.5 % of Cauvery water. The disputes started during the British proficiency itself. It started when the British was controlling both Mysore and Madras, during the 19th century.
There was a huge crisis in Tamilnadu during 1995-96. Tamilnadu approached Suprement court demanding the immediate release of atleast of 30 billion ft. The Cauver water dispute tribunal analysed the case, and asked Karnataka to release 11 billion ft, Karnataka accepted it and released. In 2002, the drama arised again. Finally in 2013, the supreme court announced as such, the annual allocation of 419 tmcft to Tamil nadu in the entire Cauvery basin, 270tmcft to Karnataka, 30 tmcft to Kerala and 7tmcft to Pondicherry.
Likewise, the Godavari water disputes happened in the states of Maharashtra and Orissa . The supreme court announced Inter state agricultural projects, to stop this dispute.
The river water dispute arises in International level also, because of the increase in population, urbanization, environmental degradation and industrialization. Water resources are facing tremendous and ever increasing pressures throughout the globe. India and Pakistan with the interference of world bank, were able to resolve the dispute over the Indus River system in 1960. Egypt and Sudan resolved their dispute of the Nile river during 1959. The Israelis and the Palestinians shared the Jordan river.
The International water law, passed some regulations to regularize the disputes between the countries and the states. ICSID is one of the five institutions of the world River bank, it took the disputes in a different complexity. The Disputes between the States and Nationals of other states entered into a force in 1996. ICISD currently has 124 members. Many disputes have been solved by the agreements during 2005. The involvement of ICISD gives a good solutions to the river water disputes, whether it is national or international.
To conclude the topic, whether is a state level dispute or national level dispute, the main thing which will stop the disputes is the co-operation between the countries and the states. Water, in the recent decades has become the scarce resource and with the steady growth in the population, it has the intense to get more disputes. Co-operation can, and indeed should, go beyond the classic approach of sharing the benefits derived from such waters.
Before getting into disputes, they should realize, water is a natural resource !!!