### How to solve coding and decoding problems in verbal reasoning?

Friends, this coding and decoding type problems we can expect in all type of screening tests.  Especially in day 1 of SSB screening.  Lets start now,

A code is a system of signals and coding is the way of communication between a sender and a receiver without the cognizance of a third party. This test is set up to judge the candidate ability to decipher the rule that codes a particular word/message. These types of questions are generally found in following ways:-

1.       Letter Coding
In these type of questions each letter in a word is replaced by some other letters. This will be according to some rules, logic. A candidate is expected to find out this rule/logic of coding.
Type 1: To form code for another word (coding)
Example: 1. In a certain code language ARMY is written as ZQLX. How will NAVY will be coded in the same way?
1). MBWX            2). MBWZ            3). MZUX             4). MZTX

Solution:  3). MZUX
Look at the given Code:                          A             R             M            Y
-1           -1            -1            -1
Z              Q             L              X
A is coded to its previous letter Z. R is coded to its previous letter Q. M is coded to its previous letter L. Y is coded to its previous letter X. Now apply the same rule for the question word NAVY,
N             A             V             Y
-1            -1            -1            -1
M            Z              U             X

So the answer is 3).

This can be in any method. By the use of simple reasoning we can find out the coding rule. Check out following example.

Example: 2. In a certain code language TRAVEL is coded as BSUMFW. Then how will the word SHOWER coded in that language?
1). WLSAIV          2). TIPXFS            3). PKPXFS          4). PITSFX

Solution: 4). PITSFX
Here by looking to the given example we can find it bit complex. So in any type of coding question, one of the short cut is, first split the given word and its code in to two groups. That is,
In case of words with odd number of letters grouping will contain 3 groups. Like below shown

Example 3.: GENERAL is coded as MDFFKZQ. Then ADMIRAL is coded as?
Solution:  Here word GENERAL has 7 words. So when grouping do as follows:-
Like this ADMIRAL can be coded as LCZJKZQ

Type 2: To find word by analyzing the given cod (decoding)
Example: If NARGRUED is the code for GRANDEUR, which word is coded as SERPEVRE?
Solution: In decoding questions also same method is used. Split the given code to two groups.
So the answer is PRESERVE.

2. Number/Symbol Coding
In these kind of questions, there will either be numerical code values assigned to a word or alphabetical code letters are assigned to the numbers. The candidates are required to analyze the code as per question.

Example: 1. If CHAROLME is coded as 45169327 and MORALE is coded as 296137, how is the word ALLOCHRE coded in that language?
a). 13394567       b). 16693985       c). 19943785       d). 13396875
Solution: a). 13394567
Here by analyzing given words and its codes, it is obvious that this is a question of direct coding.

 Letter C H A R O L M E Code 4 5 1 6 9 3 2 7

From this rule we can find the code for ALLOCHRE as 13394567.

Example: 2. If T=20, PUT=47, then FLUT=?
a). 89                     b). 59                     c). 78                     d). 95
Solution: b). 59
In these type of questions, we can see that the code is obtained by adding the alphabetical number positions. Therefore code for FLUT is obtained by simply adding 6+12+21+20=59.

3. Substitution
In these types of questions, some particular words are assigned certain substitute names.

Example: If ‘Red’ is called ‘Black’, ‘Black’ is called ‘Blue’, ‘Blue’ is called ‘Green’, ‘Green’ is called ‘Yellow’, then what is the colour of leaf?
a). Black               b). Green            c). Blue                 d). Yellow
Solution: d). Yellow
In general colour of leaf is Green. Now as per our question, ‘Green’ is called ‘Yellow’. So answer is Yellow.

4. Deciphering Message Code Words
In these types of questions, some message are given in the coded language and the coded language and the code for a particular code or word is asked. To analyse these type of questions, any two messages bearing a common word are picked up. These common code word will represent that word. Proceeding similarly by picking up all possible combination of two, the entire message can be decoded.

Example: In a certain code language le pi chumeans She is Nice,pi rakemeans Rita is Painting, pi ra ta means Painting is Good. What is the code for Rita in that language?
a). ke                     b). pi                      c). ra                      d). ta
Solution: a). ke
In the first and second statement, the common code is pi and the common word is is. Now in the second and third statements, common code is raand common word is Painting other than pi and is. Now looking in to the third statement it is to find that code for Rita is ke.

5. Deciphering Number and Symbol codes for Messages.
This is same as above mentioned case except the fact that the code contains numbers and symbols.

Example: In a certain code language ‘157’ mean ‘He is Soldier’, ‘419’ means ‘Kunal is Brave’, and ‘423’ mean ‘Brave Men Fight’. What is the code for ‘Brave’ in that language?
a). 1                       b). 9                       c). 4                        d). 3
Solution: c). 4
Comparing first and second statements, we get common code ‘1’ and its word ‘is’. Now comparing second and third statements, we get common code ’4’ and its word as ‘Brave’.

All the best friends.